Most health inequalities in socio-economic and gender groups are avoidable. These influences are often referred to by people working in the health sector as the social determinants of health. Recently, it has been shown that much of the global burden of disease and health inequalities is caused by these social determinants. In fact, many social determinants of health such as lack of clean water, nutrition, housing, education and general sanitary conditions can have a considerable effect on COVID-19 outcomes. The homeless are at higher risk of viral transmission because of crowded living spaces & scarce access to resources.
In general, aside from the usual social-distancing measures and masks, some of the considerations for an average citizen are as follows. They must try not to touch buttons in elevators, for instance: instead, use a pen or pencil. Most of the high-rise buildings with no fresh air pose a health risk. Breathing irritant air containing smoke or tear gas can cause serious breathing obstruction. Therefore, a lockdown reduces the possibility of smoke and creates conditions for the flow of oxygen. There is an additional responsibility on state authorities to avoid tear gas in case of any violent protest and it is equally imperative upon the protestors to avoid burning any tyre for their own safety. Keep a reasonable distance on evening walks and take strolls with masks on. The rate of infection is rising: therefore, wearing masks and maintaining social distance is mandatory.
Viruses are naturally occurring organisms. Some of the familiar viral infections include measles, varicella, polio, human papilloma virus, influenza and rhinoviruses, mostly responsible for the common cold. And an even smaller number of viruses are responsible for the deadliest human infections that we have experienced so far. In recent decades these include the rabies virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola virus and now, infamously, coronaviruses.
All animals have viruses that live inside them. And bats, as well as a range of other mammal groups, happen to be natural carriers of coronaviruses. These coronaviruses don’t appear to be harmful to the bats, but there is potential for them to be dangerous to other animals if the viruses have opportunities to jump between species. Incidentally, bats do a lot of good for the world too, they pollinate plants, they eat disease-carrying insects and they help disperse seeds that help with the regeneration of tropical forest trees. Coronaviruses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more recently the COVID19-causing SARS-CoV-2 virus, are thought to have originated in bats.
Confused narratives and obstinate attitudes from the state authorities can cause particular damage. There is a serious risk of explosive growth. Health experts in the USA, for instance, fear that Florida is the next epicenter whereas President Trump is sending a wrong message to the public. The anti-science bias in the middle of the pandemic on the part of the highest authority in the United States is very worrisome.
Beijing is imposing restrictions as the COVID-19 cluster grows. The outbreak has been traced to a huge wholesale food market in Beijing. This reinforces the fact that the virus can re-emerge and a second wave cannot be ruled out.
Portugal is one of the least affected countries. They closed down and conducted mass testing to avoid overwhelming rush to the hospitals.
There were at least three distinct waves of influenza in 1918 and 1919, which killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide. The pandemic was simultaneous with World War I, and the war is believed to have spread the virus around the globe more quickly than it otherwise would have.
The first wave began in March 1918 and eased by the summer. The second wave came in the fall, followed by a third wave during the winter and spring of 1919.
The author is a Development Specialist based in Karachi